Typical structure comparison of main drive system
- Basic composition of CNC machine tools
- Components of CNC machine tools external device
The so-called external equipment refers to the instruments and equipment used to realize data exchange with the CNC device of the machine tool. For simple parts, the method of manual programming is commonly used in the preparation and input of machining programs of CNC machine tools, and the input and editing are carried out through the manual data input and display panel of the CNC device. This method is called MDI method. More complex parts usually automatically generate machining programs through CAD/CAM software, and use the communication interface of the numerical control device to exchange data with the numerical control device. In addition, the editing and input of PLC (ProgrammableLogical Programmable Logic Controller) programs inside some numerical control devices often need to be realized by means of programming instruments and other equipment. At present, more advanced CNC machine tools use portable computers with special software to exchange data with CNC devices. Therefore, common external devices are paper tape readers, punching machines, programmers, disk drives, tape drives, portable computers, etc.
The numerical control device is the core of the numerical control machine tool, which mainly includes hardware (various electronic circuit boards, such as central data processor, memory, interface board, display card, display, keyboard, power supply, etc.) and software (such as operating system, interpolation software, Compensation software, machine tool control software, graphics processing software, etc.) two parts. Its main function is to complete the input, output and processing of part programs, storage and processing of processing information, interpolation operations, coordinate axis motion control and control of other auxiliary actions required by the machine tool (such as cooling start, stop, spindle rotation, etc.). Steering control and shifting, etc.)
The drive device is the executive mechanism of the CNC machine tool, which generally includes two parts: the feed drive unit, the feed motor and the spindle drive unit, and the spindle motor. Usually consists of a speed controller, a position controller, a drive motor and a corresponding position detection device. . According to the motion control pulse command issued by the numerical control device, the driving device drives the worktable and the main shaft of the machine tool to automatically complete the corresponding motion, and controls the speed and accuracy of the motion or positioning. The displacement of the moving parts of the machine tool produced by each command pulse signal is called the pulse equivalent.
Commonly used pulse equivalents are 0.01mm/pulse, 0.005mm/pulse and 0.001mm/pulse. At present, the commonly used servo drive motors in CNC machine tools are power stepper motors, AC servo motors and DC servo motors. Commonly used position detection devices are photoelectric encoders, gratings and other position detection elements. Usually, the numerical control device and driving device of a numerical control machine tool are collectively referred to as a numerical control system.
Host and Auxiliary Equipment
The main engine is the mechanical part of the CNC machine tool, including basic components such as the bed, column, spindle, and feed mechanism, as well as supporting devices (such as hydraulic and pneumatic components, cooling devices, chip removal devices, etc.) to ensure the reliable operation of the CNC machine tool. Compared with ordinary machine tools, the host part of CNC machine tools has the following characteristics:
- The structure of the transmission system is simple and the transmission chain is short
- Using high-performance feed and spindle system, the mechanical structure has high dynamic stiffness and small damping, and has the characteristics of good wear resistance and small thermal deformation
- Adopt high-efficiency transmission components, such as ball screw pair, linear rolling guide, etc., with fast following characteristics to ensure the movement accuracy of the machine tool
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