Numerical control technology is a comprehensive technology that integrates computer technology, automation control technology, measurement technology, modern machinery manufacturing technology, microelectronic technology, information processing technology, etc. It has developed rapidly in the application field in recent years.
It appeared to adapt to the processing of high-precision, high-speed, and complex parts. It is the basis for automation, digitization, flexibility, informatization, integration, and networking. It is the soul and core of modern machine tool equipment.
At present, it is a technology that uses a computer to realize digital program control. This technology uses the computer to execute the sequential logic control function of the movement track of the equipment and the operation of the peripherals according to the control program stored in advance. Because the computer is used to replace the numerical control device originally composed of hardware logic circuits, the realization of various control functions such as storage, processing, operation, and logical judgment of input operation instructions can be completed through computer software, and the generated micro-instructions are transmitted. Drive the motor or hydraulic actuator to the servo drive to drive the equipment to run.
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CNC technology is an important basis for manufacturing. Numerical control technology and equipment are the most basic equipment for developing new high-tech and cutting-edge industries. Marx once said, “The difference between various economic times is not what is produced, but how to produce and what means of labor are used to produce it.” Manufacturing technology is the most basic means of production for human beings, and numerical control technology is the core technology of today’s advanced manufacturing technology. Therefore, the competition of machinery manufacturing is actually the competition of numerical control technology.
The development trend of numerical control technology, the development of computer technology has been changing with each passing day since the 1990s, and it has developed from 8-bit computer to Pentium era. Its speed function is hundreds of times faster than 8-bit machines. The numerical control technology of various numerical control functions that can be realized by software on a general-purpose microcomputer has undergone profound changes. The rich software resources and good man-machine interface on the PC are unmatched by other CNC technologies.
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The development direction of CNC technology functions: the user interface is graphical, and the user interface is the dialogue interface between the CNC system and the user. Because each user has different requirements for the interface, the workload of user interface development is enormous, which has become one of the most difficult parts of computer software development. The current technologies such as internet, virtual reality, scientific computing visualization and multimedia also put forward higher requirements for user interface.
Scientific computing visualization, which can be used to efficiently process data and interpret data, so that information exchange can be transformed from the previous text and language expressions to the direct use of graphics, images, animations and other information. The combination of visualization technology and virtual environment technology makes CNC technology enter a new field, such as virtual prototype technology, design without drawings and so on. This can not only shorten the design product cycle, but also improve product quality and reduce product cost. In the field of numerical control technology, visualization technology is used for the dynamic processing and display of CAD and CAM, as well as the visualization and demonstration of the machining process.
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The interpolation and compensation methods are diversified, and the interpolation methods include linear interpolation, circular interpolation, cylindrical interpolation, thread interpolation, polynomial interpolation, etc. Various compensation functions such as gap compensation, verticality compensation, quadrant error compensation, temperature compensation, radius compensation and so on.
Multimedia technology, which integrates multimedia technology with audio-visual and communication technology, enables computers to comprehensively process sound, text, images and video information.
The way out of China’s CNC: As far as the current domestic CNC technology is concerned, the CNC products produced have a certain gap with foreign countries in terms of appearance, performance and reliability. In order to occupy the Chinese market, foreign companies use strong funds to help my country The products produced are sold at low prices, and the products that cannot be produced in our country are sold at high prices. Under the multiple pressures of foreign CNC enterprises, my country’s CNC is controlled by others everywhere and always falls behind other developed countries. However, with the development of computer technology and traditional CNC technology, my country is in a relatively backward state. Therefore, open CNC provides a good opportunity for the development of CNC in my country. Only by strengthening and focusing on supporting the research and application of open CNC, my country’s numerical control has the possibility of growth and can be in an invincible position in the future market competition.
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The open and general real-time dynamic full-closed-loop control mode is adopted in the processing process, which is easy to integrate high-tech computer real-time intelligent technology, network technology, multimedia technology, CADCAM, adaptive control, dynamic fangzhen, etc. into one, forming a strict closed-loop control of the manufacturing process system to achieve integration, intelligence and networking. Based on the characteristics of openness, low cost, high reliability, and abundant software and hardware resources in the sixth-generation development of PC, more CNC system manufacturers will embark on this road. At least a PC is used as its front-end machine to deal with problems such as man-machine interface, programming and network communication.
Due to the standardization and modularization of computer hardware, as well as software modularization, the open technology is becoming more and more mature, and the numerical control technology begins to enter the open stage. The open CNC system has better versatility, flexibility, adaptability and expansibility.
Countries such as the United States, the European Community, and Japan have implemented strategic development plans and conducted research and formulation of open architecture CNC system specifications (OMAC, OSACA, OSEC). The three largest economies in the world have conducted almost the same in a short period of time. The formulation of scientific plans and technical specifications for NC technology heralds the advent of a new period of change in CNC technology. In 2000, my country also began to research and formulate the normative framework of China’s ONC CNC system.
The development method of the open numerical control system: first, according to the working characteristics of the equipment to be developed, determine the type of servo motor, determine the number of motor axes to be controlled and the working mode of the motor, and determine the number of input and output switches to select the appropriate motion. control.
Secondly, according to the loading conditions of the equipment during the working process, the maximum torque and driving power required for the movement of each axis are calculated, and the axis motor, driver and reducer are selected respectively under the conditions of safety factor and installation space.
Connect the analog or pulse signal control line and programming code feedback signal line between the controller and the drive according to the wiring terminal arrangement instructions of the motion controller and the motor driver control signal wiring instructions, and then connect the positive and negative switches of the equipment axis to the controller. connection board. Connect the zero switch if necessary. Connect the switches and indicator lights of the operation panel to the general digital output/input terminals on the terminal block of the motion controller.
Start the debugging software of the motion controller, control the motor motion of each axis and the working status of the digital output/input ports, and check the accuracy of the wiring. Use the dynamic response test function in Xest to test the dynamic response characteristics of each axis and select reasonable control parameters. Finally, the development of application software is carried out.
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