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Common Faults Of Power Supply In CNC Lathe Factory

In a CNC lathe factory, the power supply is a critical component that ensures the proper functioning of various machines and equipment. A reliable and stable power supply is essential for maintaining consistent and efficient operations in the manufacturing process. However, power supply-related faults can occur, leading to downtime, reduced productivity, and potential damage to the equipment. In this article, we will explore the common faults of the power supply in a CNC lathe factory, the possible causes behind these issues, the diagnostic methods, and appropriate solutions to prevent and address them effectively.

Voltage Fluctuations

Causes: Voltage fluctuations in the power supply can occur due to various factors, such as electrical grid instability, load variations, or changes in the power demand of neighboring factories.

Diagnosis: Voltage fluctuations can be monitored using voltage meters or power analyzers. Regular voltage checks can help identify potential issues.


  • Install voltage stabilizers or regulators to maintain a stable voltage level.
  • Consider an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to provide temporary power during voltage dips or surges.

Power Surges

Causes: Power surges can result from lightning strikes, grid switching, or electrical system malfunctions. These surges can cause significant damage to sensitive electronic components in CNC lathe machines.

Diagnosis: Use surge protectors and power monitoring systems to detect and record power surges.


  • Install surge protectors at power entry points to the CNC machines.
  • Utilize isolation transformers to shield sensitive equipment from power fluctuations.


Causes: Brownouts are a decrease in voltage levels, usually caused by excessive power demands or electrical grid issues.

Diagnosis: Voltage monitoring devices can identify voltage drops and record brownout events.


  • Implement voltage stabilizers or automatic voltage regulators to compensate for low voltage situations.
  • Reduce power consumption during peak hours to minimize the risk of brownouts.

Power Outages

Causes: Power outages can result from severe weather conditions, accidents, or electrical system failures.

Diagnosis: Monitoring systems can alert operators of power interruptions.


  • Install UPS systems to provide temporary power during outages, allowing for a safe shutdown of CNC machines.
  • Consider backup power generators for critical CNC operations.

Harmonics and Electrical Noise

Causes: Harmonics and electrical noise can occur due to nonlinear loads, motor operations, or other electrical disturbances. They can disrupt the power supply and affect CNC machine performance.

Diagnosis: Power quality analyzers can detect harmonic distortion and electrical noise in the power supply.


  • Implement power line filters or active harmonic filters to reduce harmonic distortion.
  • Use shielded cables and grounding techniques to minimize electrical noise.


Causes: Overloading the power supply can happen when the total power demand exceeds the capacity of the electrical system.

Diagnosis: Monitoring power consumption and load balancing can help identify overloading issues.


  • Distribute the load evenly across multiple electrical phases.
  • Upgrade the electrical system to handle higher power demands.

Loose Connections

Causes: Loose connections at power terminals can lead to voltage drop, increased resistance, and potential electrical hazards.

Diagnosis: Regular visual inspections can reveal loose connections.


  • Conduct routine maintenance to check and tighten electrical connections.
  • Use appropriate connectors and ensure proper crimping for secure connections.

Transformer Failures

Causes: Transformer failures can occur due to insulation breakdown, overloading, or manufacturing defects.

Diagnosis: Routine transformer inspections and testing can identify potential failures.


  • Replace faulty transformers promptly to prevent further damage to the power supply.
  • Use high-quality transformers from reputable manufacturers.

Circuit Breaker Tripping

Causes: Circuit breaker tripping can happen due to short circuits, overloads, or electrical faults.

Diagnosis: Inspect the circuit breakers for signs of overheating or damage.


  • Address the cause of the tripping, such as resolving short circuits or reducing the load on the circuit.
  • Replace faulty circuit breakers with new ones if necessary.

A stable and reliable power supply is essential for the smooth and efficient operation of CNC lathe machines in a factory setting. However, various power supply-related faults can occur, leading to downtime, reduced productivity, and potential damage to equipment. By understanding the common causes of these faults and implementing appropriate diagnostic methods and solutions, CNC lathe factories can minimize disruptions and maintain a consistent production workflow. Regular maintenance, the use of protective devices, and investing in reliable power supply systems are key to ensuring a stable and uninterrupted power supply for CNC machining operations.

Fault diagnosis and treatment: After a long period of observation, it is found that the main contactor does not pull normally after power-on, and sometimes power-off and jumps randomly.

After checking the cause of the fault, it was found that the filter capacitor of one power supply from the switching power supply to the contactor wire package leaked electricity, resulting in a low voltage. At this time, if the power supply voltage is too high, it is not a big problem. If the power supply voltage is too low, it will cause the contactor to pull in abnormally and cause unprovoked shutdown. The CNC lathe factory found the fault and replaced the capacitor to resume normal work.

CNC lathe factory[Case 10]SIEMENS 802D System Shows Confusion

Trouble phenomenon:a SIEMENS 802D system CNC garnishing center display confusion.

Failure Analysis

  • Keep the battery (lithium battery) voltage too low, at this time, the alarm No. 711 can generally be displayed.
  • Because the power board or the memory board has been pulled out, the storage area is confused. This is a soft fault, as long as the CNC internal program is cleared and re-entered, the fault can be eliminated.
  • The hardware failure on the power board or the memory board causes the program to display confusion.
  • If the alarm No. 513 is displayed, it means that the memory capacity is not enough.Fault diagnosis and treatment: According to the above analysis, after replacing the battery, the fault is eliminated.

CNC lathe factory[Case 11]The SINUMERIK 840D CNC system has unstable machining dimensions, out of tolerance and irregularity, but the system does not have any alarm indication.

Fault Phenomenon:

a CNC milling machine controlled by SINUMERIK 840D CNC system, the processing size in the Z-axis direction is unstable, the size is out of tolerance and there is no regularity, but the system does not have any alarm indication, resulting in the addition of two T1 pieces to be scrapped.

Fault Analysis:

The milling machine uses method 2 to return to zero, and the return to zero is normal, so the problem should be in the mechanical transmission system and electrical control system.

Fault Diagnosis And Treatment:

Check the transmission clearance of the mechanical transmission system and the control pulse of the control system and the stability of the servo system and found that they are normal. The CNC lathe factory then inspected its zero-returning mechanical control structure, and found that the clamping screw of the zero-point switch shaft was loose, causing the position of the pressing block to move irregularly, resulting in irregular drift of the zero-returning point, resulting in z The shaft displacement dimension is out of tolerance, and the workpiece is scrapped. After the CNC lathe factory readjusted the position of the pressing block, the fault disappeared.

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