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Common Materials For CNC Machine Tool Gears

The commonly used gear materials for CNC machine tools are forged steel, followed by cast iron, cast steel, non-ferrous metals, and non-metallic materials can also be used as gear materials.

CNC Machine Forged Steel

CNC machine tool forged steel is a commonly used gear material. In order to improve the resistance of the tooth surface to pitting corrosion, gluing and wear, it is generally subjected to heat treatment to improve the hardness of the tooth surface and improve the processing performance of the material.

  • Soft tooth surface gear of CNC machine tool with HBW≤350 The soft tooth surface is usually made of medium carbon steel such as 45 steel and 35 steel. In important occasions, 40Cr, 35SiMn and other medium carbon alloy steels are used, and the heat treatment method is normalizing or quenching and tempering. Considering the number of working times of the pinion gear teeth, the tooth surface hardness should be 25-50 HBW higher than that of the large gear. When the soft tooth surface gear is processed, the wheel blank is generally heat treated first, and then the tooth cutting is performed. The processing technology is relatively simple, and it is mostly used in general mechanical transmission.
  • Hardened gears of CNC machine tools with HBW>350 are usually made of 45 steel, 45Cr and 20 steel, 20Cr, etc. The heat treatment method for obtaining the hard tooth surface is surface quenching of medium carbon steel or medium carbon alloy steel, and surface carburizing and quenching of low carbon steel or low carbon alloy steel; or surface heat treatment such as nitriding or chlorination. The hardness of the tooth surface after heat treatment generally reaches 45 to 62 HRC.

The machining process of the hard-tooth surface gear of the CNC machine tool is: rough tooth surface heat treatment and fine grinding. This type of gear needs to be ground with special equipment, the manufacturing process is complicated, and it is only used in precision machinery in important occasions.

CNC Machine Tool Cast Iron

Cast iron is suitable for casting gear blanks with complex shapes. It has the advantages of low cost, strong resistance to gluing, pitting corrosion, and good cutting performance, but its bending strength and impact resistance are poor.

It is often used for low speed, light load, and large size. and open gear transmission.Commonly used cast iron grades are: HT200, HT300, QT500-7, QT600-3, etc.

CNC Machine Tool Cast Steel

For diameters greater than 50. For gears of mm or complex shapes, cast steel materials can be selected. ZG340-640 etc.
Cast steel gears have good strength and wear resistance, but before the wheel blank is processed, it should be annealed or normalized, or quenched and tempered to eliminate the internal stress of the material and improve the cutting performance.

Non-Metallic Materials For CNC Machine Tools

In the gear transmission of high speed, light load and low precision, in order to reduce noise, non-metallic materials such as nylon and plastic can be used. Usually the pinion is made of non-metallic materials, and the large gear is still made of steel and cast iron to facilitate heat dissipation.

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