Through experiments, it is found that carbon content at the bottom of the electroslag ingot will increase when the carbon content in the purified slag is higher than 0.02%. When produced according to the traditional process, the carbon content in the purified slag is about 0.07%, and the carbon mainly comes from alumina powder (containing 0.06% to 0.08% C). Furthermore, if graphite electrodes are used to melt the slag, the carbon increase of the steel ingot will be aggravated. It is also found that the carbon increase of electroslag steel ingots gradually decreases from bottom to top. This is because during the smelting process, part of the C in the slag has diffused into the steel, and part of it is gradually burned.
The quality of O-S purified slag is the key to the desulfurization of electroslag process. Purified slag is generally smelted with iron-aluminum rods to reduce the SiO: brought in the fluorite. If the SiO: content of the finished slag is high (>3%), the desulfurization ability of the slag will be poor. The returned slag has been analyzed, and the total content of unstable oxides (FeO, SiO, and MnO) in the slag is up to 20%, and the slag is black. At this time, the electroslag process has no desulfurization effect and the quality of the steel ingot is poor.
In the process of electroslag smelting, the oxidation and alkalinity of the slag changes with the changes of various smelting conditions, which affects the desulfurization effect, especially when the oxidation of the slag increases, the desulfurization effect becomes significantly worse. The literature believes that the high content of FeO and MnO in the slag will significantly increase the oxygen permeability to the slag. The continuous increase of FeO content in the slag phase will cause burning loss of active elements and changes in the composition of remelted metals and slag.
Through production tests, it is concluded that the main reason for the increased oxidation of slag during the electroslag smelting process is that there is residual oxide scale on the surface of the electrode blank, and it is prone to rust due to weather. The oxidation of the electrode surface is aggravated under high temperature conditions. As it progresses, the oxides on the electrode surface continue to enter the liquid slag, causing the slag to increase in oxidation.
In the experiment, it was also found that the oxidation rate of the slag from the large ingot bipolar tandem process increased quickly; the aluminum content in the YT01 electrode blank was low, which was not conducive to controlling the oxidation of the slag. Therefore, it is believed that the surface oxide scale and rust of the electrode, and the high temperature oxide on the electrode surface during the smelting process are the main sources of unstable oxides in the slag.
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