As far as the classification of many domestic operators who have just engaged in CNC machine tools is concerned, a large part of the operators are skilled workers who have previously engaged in the operation of general manual machine tools or semi-automatic machine tools. They are very familiar with machining, but the programming of CNC machine tools is Relatively unfamiliar; there are also students who have just graduated from mechanical colleges. They are familiar with machining knowledge, CNC machining and programming theory, but lack actual machining experience; there are also many operators who have never been exposed to machining and programming. Yes, then it is very difficult for them to learn the operation of CNC machine tools.
For these beginners of CNC machine tools, it is very important to master certain CNC machine tool operation skills. On the one hand, they can avoid machine tool collision accidents, resulting in machine tool damage; on the other hand, in a short period of time, they can quickly improve the operator’s CNC machine tool operating skills, be competent for their own work, and create economic benefits for the unit. This paper introduces some theoretical knowledge of the operation skills of CNC machine tools especially for these operators who are new to CNC machine tools, and hopes to have some reference significance for the operators of CNC machine tools who have just engaged in it.
First of all, the operator needs to have a comprehensive understanding of the CNC machine tool being operated. Understand the mechanical structure of the machine tool: to understand the mechanical structure of the machine tool; to master the axis distribution of the machine tool; moreover, to firmly grasp the positive and negative directions of each CNC axis of the machine tool; to master the function and use of each component of the machine tool, such as simple The principle and function of the pneumatic system, the working principle and function of the simple hydraulic system; in addition, it is necessary to master the working principle and function of each auxiliary unit of the machine tool, such as the work of the tool magazine, cooling unit, voltage regulator, electrical cabinet cooler, etc. The principle, function and use method, as well as the working principle, function and use method of each safety door lock of the machine tool.
Firmly grasp the function of each operation button of the machine tool: know how to execute the program; how to pause the program and check the machining status of the workpiece, resume the paused state and continue to execute the program, how to stop the program; how to change the program and then execute the program, and so on.
Understand what kind of operating system the machine tool you are operating; briefly understand the control principle and working method of the numerical control system; what working language the system uses, the software used for machine tool processing and the language used. If the operator does not know the language or the professional vocabulary of the language, then professional training is required. During the training, he needs to take notes carefully. What each word in the machine software means in Chinese must be memorized by rote. If you master it, you can use the machine tool correctly in the future. In addition, the operator also needs to learn and master the general operation alarm sentences during training, know what the Chinese mean, how to solve the problem, and how to eliminate false alarms. In addition, for operators, if they have the energy and ability, they can learn and master this language, which will be of great help to improve machine tool operation skills in the future.
Secondly, it is necessary to master the manual or automatic operation of controlling the CNC machine tool, and master the movement of each CNC axis of the machine tool. The operator must reach the state of practice makes perfect, then he can be able to retract freely in any situation; only in the event of a collision or failure, the operator can deal with the problem correctly and in a timely manner, and the operator can form a conditioned reflex , decisively take braking measures. In addition, the operator should be very familiar with the machining program of the CNC machine tool; what kind of process and operation, what kind of action the machine tool should have, must be very familiar with it. When the machine tool executes the program, you can know at the first time whether the machine tool is moving correctly and whether braking measures need to be taken. In addition, every novice operator has more or less fear in the early stage of operating the machine tool, fearing that the machine tool will collide with the knife and the machine. Then only after the operator has mastered the operation of CNC machine tools, can they overcome similar fears, and can learn to master higher CNC machine tool operation skills on this basis.
Third, it is necessary to master program editing, parameter compensation of each process and compensation of the diameter and length of the tool or grinding wheel. First of all, after training, master the programming language, programming method and compensation method of each parameter of the CNC machine tool you want to operate. Most advanced CNC machines are now equipped with PC workstations for programming or simulation. So beginners can first perform software editing and machine tool cutting simulation learning on the workstation. In the process of learning programming, don’t just focus on the simulation results, but more importantly, learn the process of simulation processing, understand what kind of tool or grinding wheel needs to be used for the processing of the workpiece, and what kind of motion path the CNC axis of the machine tool completes the cutting process; When executing a specific process, the position and direction of the movement of the relevant components in the machine tool; pay attention to the movement direction and cutting direction of each axis when executing the machining, including how to feed the tool and how to withdraw the tool. The fast forward speed and displacement of the step, and the speed and displacement of each step. When processing through simulation software, pay attention that all parameters must be input correctly during the simulation process, and do not input carelessly because of the simulation, which may result in incorrect simulation processing results; or cause collisions during actual processing in the future, or Parts scrapped. If the simulation software has the function of anti-collision test, then use this function to check the correctness of programming. In addition, the operator needs to pay special attention: the simulation processing is only a theoretical result, which does not mean that the machine tool will not collide during the actual cutting process, nor does it mean that qualified products can be processed. The purpose of simulation is to save programming time, improve the actual utilization of machine tools, and reduce debugging time when machining workpieces, but it does not represent actual parts processing. Completing the perfect workpiece machining is inseparable from the wisdom and sweat of CNC machine operators.
Fourth, the processing skills in the actual processing process, carefully prepare the work, first read the drawings, confirm the position of the workpiece to be processed, confirm the precision tolerance of the workpiece to be processed, and then edit the processing program. Prepare the workpieces and tools or grinding wheels needed in the processing, prepare all the testing instruments required in the processing, and prepare all the auxiliary tooling and fixtures required in the processing.
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