The force deformation in a CNC lathe process system can significantly influence the machining quality of the workpiece. Understanding and managing these forces are essential to achieve accurate and precise machining results. Let’s explore the influence of force deformation on machining quality in more detail:
Excessive force during machining can cause deformation in the workpiece, leading to dimensional inaccuracies. It may result in oversize or undersize parts, which do not meet the required specifications. Proper selection of cutting parameters, tooling, and workholding techniques is crucial to minimize force-related deformations and maintain dimensional accuracy.
High cutting forces can cause vibration and chatter during machining, resulting in poor surface finish. Surface irregularities like tool marks, waviness, and roughness can be observed on the machined surface. Reducing cutting forces through appropriate tool selection, toolpath optimization, and machine rigidity can help achieve better surface finish.
Tool Life and Wear
Excessive forces can lead to accelerated tool wear and reduced tool life. High cutting forces can cause rapid tool deterioration, increasing the frequency of tool changes, and affecting productivity. Proper tool material selection, cutting parameters, and coolant application can extend tool life and reduce the impact of force deformation on tool wear.
Machining Residual Stresses
Force-induced deformation during machining can create residual stresses in the workpiece. These residual stresses may cause dimensional instability and warpage after the machining process is complete. Heat treatment and stress-relief techniques can be employed to mitigate the effects of residual stresses.
Workpiece Material Properties
Different materials exhibit varying responses to cutting forces, resulting in different levels of deformation. Materials with lower tensile strength and stiffness are more susceptible to deformation during machining. Consideration of material properties is essential in selecting appropriate machining strategies and cutting parameters.
Machine Rigidity and Stability
The rigidity and stability of the CNC lathe play a vital role in handling the cutting forces. A rigid machine structure helps to dampen vibrations and ensures better machining accuracy. Regular maintenance and calibration of the CNC lathe are necessary to maintain its stability and performance.
Workholding and Fixturing
Proper workholding and fixturing are essential to secure the workpiece during machining and prevent excessive deformation. Choosing the right clamping method and positioning the workpiece securely can minimize the impact of cutting forces on workpiece stability.
Chatter and Vibration
High cutting forces can lead to chatter and vibration during machining. Chatter can cause irregularities in the workpiece surface and degrade the machining quality. Damping techniques, such as using vibration-absorbing tool holders or adjusting cutting parameters, can help control chatter and vibration.
Influence of the change of the position of the action point of the cutting force The stiffness of the process system is not only affected by the stiffness of each component, but also changes with the change of the position of the action point of the cutting force.
The CNC lathe actually bends and deforms the workpiece due to the change of the position of the action point of the cutting force, which leads to the shape error of the workpiece and affects the processing quality of the workpiece.Influence of cutting force change During turning, uneven machining allowance or uneven material hardness will cause changes in cutting force and force deformation of the process system, resulting in the phenomenon of “error re-image”.
For example, when a CNC lathe is turning a blank hole with a large amount of eccentricity, the machining allowance changes more or less during each revolution of the workpiece. When the machining allowance is large, the cutting force becomes larger, and the displacement of the tool “leaving the knife” is also large; when the turning is on the side with a small allowance, the cutting force and the displacement of the tool are small. Therefore, the machined surface has the same offset direction as the blank fL, and the eccentricity error is much smaller. The CNC lathe regards this error as a “re-image” of the initial error of the surface to be machined on the machined surface. The lower the cutting degree of the CNC lathe process system, the more severe the “re-image” phenomenon of the error.
Machining The Interrupted Surface Also Reduces The Machining Quality.
When turning the surface that has been milled or drilled, interrupted cutting will occur. When the tool enters the “neutral position”, the cutting force and the phenomenon of “letting the knife” disappear. At this time, when the tool is cutting the workpiece, it will have a great impact, and a large amount of back-engagement will appear. The edge of the workpiece has a slump angle, which seriously affects the processing quality.
The Influence Of Tool Passivation
After the blade is worn, the cutting edge is passivated and affects the processing quality.
- The cutting edge is worn, which changes the machining size and affects the machining accuracy.
- The geometric parameters of the CNC lathe tool are changed to increase the cutting force. If the rigidity of the process system is low, the shape accuracy of the workpiece will be affected.
- The passivated cutting edge will produce the phenomenon of “letting the knife” during the feeding, which will make the processing size unstable.
- Other forces of CNC lathes, such as clamping force, transmission force, gravity and inertial force, also have varying degrees of influence on the machining quality.
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