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Table and Chart Of International Tolerance Grade | IT Grade Number and Applications


In the world of manufacturing and engineering, precision and accuracy are paramount. Whether it’s crafting a piece of machinery, fabricating a component for aeronautics, or even designing medical equipment, ensuring that each part conforms to precise dimensions is crucial. This is where tolerance comes into play, and the International Tolerance Grade Chart/Table (IT Grade) stands as a cornerstone for ensuring quality and consistency across industries. In this extensive article, we will explore the nuances of IT Grades, the principles behind them, and their wide-ranging applications.

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Table and Chart Of International Tolerance Grade

What is International Tolerance Grade?


The International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade), often referred to as simply “IT,” is a standardized system used to define the tolerance or permissible variations in the dimensions and geometrical characteristics of manufactured products. It provides a consistent way to specify the allowable deviation from the intended or nominal dimensions of a part or component. The IT Grade system is commonly used in various industries, including manufacturing, engineering, and design, to ensure the quality and precision of products.

The primary purpose of IT Grades is to establish clear and universally understood limits for the acceptable level of variation in manufactured parts.

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The IT Grade system is based on international standards established by organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). These standards help promote consistency and interoperability in a global context, allowing manufacturers and engineers from different parts of the world to communicate effectively when designing and producing parts.Key features of the IT Grade system include:

  • Numerical Representation: IT Grades are typically represented by a numerical value, such as IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2, etc. Each numerical value corresponds to a specific level of tolerance, with lower numbers representing higher precision and tighter tolerances.
  • Tolerance Zones: Each IT Grade corresponds to a specific tolerance zone, which defines the acceptable range of variation from the nominal dimension. Tolerance zones are typically indicated on engineering drawings or specifications.
  • Clear Definitions: The IT Grade system is accompanied by well-defined standards and guidelines that specify the permissible deviations for various dimensions and characteristics, such as length, diameter, roundness, flatness, and more.
  • Versatility: The IT Grade system is versatile and can be applied to a wide range of manufacturing processes, from metalworking to plastics and electronics. It’s not limited to a specific industry or type of product.
  • Universal Acceptance: IT Grades are widely recognized and accepted internationally, making them a crucial tool for global manufacturing and quality control.
  • Quality Assurance: By adhering to IT Grades, manufacturers can ensure that their products meet specific quality standards and that they are fit for their intended purpose. This is particularly important in industries where precision and consistency are critical.

The choice of an IT Grade for a particular part depends on the specific requirements of the design, the intended application, and the feasibility of achieving the required level of precision during the manufacturing process. Lower IT Grades, such as IT01 or IT0, are associated with very tight tolerances and are used in applications where extreme precision is essential, like aerospace and medical devices. Higher IT Grades, such as IT11 or IT12, have looser tolerances and may be suitable for less critical applications.You can also use the International Tolerance Grade Calculator directly.

In summary, the International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade) is a standardized system used to define acceptable variations in the dimensions and characteristics of manufactured products. It plays a crucial role in ensuring quality, precision, and consistency in manufacturing across different industries and is widely recognized on a global scale.

What Is International Tolerance Grade Chart


The International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade) is a fundamental aspect of modern manufacturing and engineering that ensures the precision and quality of products. It is a standardized system that allows designers, engineers, and manufacturers to define acceptable variations in the dimensions and geometric characteristics of parts and components. By providing a universally recognized framework for tolerance, the IT Grade system has become an integral part of the manufacturing landscape, facilitating efficient communication and promoting consistency in product quality.

Historical Background

The origins of the International Tolerance Grade system can be traced back to the early 20th century when the need for a standardized system of tolerances became increasingly apparent. Prior to the development of this system, variations in dimensions and tolerances were often communicated using various ad hoc methods, leading to misunderstandings, errors, and inefficiencies in manufacturing processes. Engineers and manufacturers sought a common language that would transcend national boundaries and industry sectors, leading to the creation of international standards.

What Is International Tolerance Grade Chart

One of the key milestones in the development of IT Grades was the establishment of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1947. The ISO, an international body composed of representatives from numerous countries, aimed to harmonize and standardize industrial practices across the world. Part of this harmonization effort involved creating standards for tolerance grades that would be recognized and adopted internationally.

Over time, various countries had already developed their own tolerance systems. For example, in the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) introduced the Unified Thread Standard, which included standardized tolerances for screw threads. However, these national systems were often limited in their scope and lacked international recognition.

The ISO worked to consolidate and extend existing tolerance standards, leading to the establishment of a global framework for tolerances. This framework was formally introduced in the ISO 286 series of standards, where IT Grades became a key component. The ISO 286 series defines standardized tolerance grades for linear dimensions, such as length, diameter, and thickness, as well as for geometric characteristics like roundness and flatness.

ISO Standards and IT Grades

ISO Standards and IT Grades

The ISO 286 series of standards sets the stage for the application of IT Grades. These standards provide detailed guidelines for defining the permissible tolerances associated with each IT Grade.

IT Grades are represented by numerical values, such as IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2, and so on. Each numerical value corresponds to a specific level of tolerance, with lower values indicating higher precision and tighter tolerances.

The ISO 286 standards establish clear definitions for the allowable deviations in dimensions and geometric characteristics, helping to eliminate ambiguity and misinterpretation. For example, they specify how much a dimension can deviate from its nominal value without compromising the functionality of the part. Additionally, the ISO standards provide specific tolerance zones and limits for each IT Grade, making it easier for designers and manufacturers to specify tolerance requirements on engineering drawings and documentation.

The wide acceptance of ISO standards and IT Grades across industries and borders has been a significant achievement in the field of manufacturing. It enables consistent quality control, fosters international cooperation, and ensures that products meet the desired quality standards. As a result, the IT Grade system has become an indispensable tool in the pursuit of precision and reliability in manufacturing and engineering.

Understanding IT Grade Numbers


The International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade) system employs a series of numerical values to represent different levels of tolerances. These numerical values, such as IT01, IT0, IT1, IT2, and so on, play a crucial role in specifying the permissible variations in the dimensions and geometric characteristics of manufactured parts. Let’s take a closer look at these IT Grade numbers and understand how they work:

Numerical Representation

  • IT Grades are represented by numerical values that help define the level of precision and allowable tolerance for a specific dimension or geometric feature.
  • Lower IT Grade numbers are associated with tighter tolerances, indicating that the part or component must adhere closely to the nominal or intended dimensions.
  • Higher IT Grade numbers signify looser tolerances, meaning that the part can exhibit more significant deviations from the nominal dimensions.

Specific Tolerance Limits

  • Each IT Grade number corresponds to a set of specific tolerance limits defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
  • These tolerance limits specify the allowable deviations from the nominal dimensions, such as a maximum positive and negative variation from the nominal value.

Application Flexibility

  • Different IT Grades can be chosen for various dimensions and features of a part based on its intended use.
  • Engineers and designers can select different IT Grades for length, diameter, roundness, flatness, and other characteristics, tailoring the tolerances to meet specific requirements.

Universal Recognition:

  • IT Grade numbers are universally recognized and accepted across industries and countries, making it easier for manufacturers to communicate and collaborate on a global scale.
  • This universal recognition ensures that products manufactured in one part of the world can be assembled or integrated with components from another region with confidence.

How IT Grades Relate to Tolerances

IT Grades are directly associated with tolerances, which are permissible deviations from the nominal dimensions. These tolerances are specified for various characteristics of a part, and the IT Grade chosen determines the magnitude of these allowable variations. Here’s how IT Grades relate to tolerances:

Tolerance Zones

Each IT Grade corresponds to a specific tolerance zone, which defines the acceptable range of variation for a given dimension or geometric feature.

For example, choosing IT0 for a particular dimension implies a smaller tolerance zone with narrower allowable variations, while selecting IT2 results in a wider tolerance zone with more significant allowable deviations.

Tolerance Limits

Tolerance limits are the specific numerical values that indicate the maximum allowable deviations from the nominal dimension.

IT Grade numbers dictate these limits, so selecting a particular IT Grade essentially sets the permissible range of variations for that dimension.

Precision Requirements

IT Grades are a means to communicate the level of precision required for a particular feature.

For critical components where extreme precision is essential, lower IT Grades like IT01 or IT0 would be chosen to ensure very tight tolerances.

In less critical applications, where some variation is acceptable, higher IT Grades like IT11 or IT12 may be selected to allow for looser tolerances.

Comparison with Other Tolerance Systems

While the IT Grade system is widely used and recognized, there are other tolerance systems in existence. These systems vary by region and industry, and while they may serve similar purposes, they often have different notation and standards. Comparing IT Grades with other tolerance systems can provide valuable insights into their similarities and differences:

  • ISO vs. ANSI/ASME: In the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) have their own tolerance systems, which may use different notations and standards. However, many aspects of these systems align with the ISO IT Grade system in terms of principles and the basic concept of specifying tolerances.
  • DIN Standards: Germany’s Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) has its own set of tolerance standards, which may differ in notation and specifics from the ISO system. However, they share the common objective of ensuring precision in manufacturing.
  • Industry-Specific Tolerance Systems: Some industries may have specialized tolerance systems to meet their unique needs. For instance, the automotive and aerospace industries may have additional requirements beyond the general IT Grade system. These industry-specific systems are designed to address the specific challenges and tolerances related to their products.

IT Grade numbers are a fundamental component of the International Tolerance Grade system, enabling precise specification of acceptable deviations from nominal dimensions. These numerical values directly relate to tolerance zones and limits, allowing for flexibility in tailoring tolerances to meet specific engineering requirements. While other tolerance systems exist, the IT Grade system’s universal recognition and acceptance make it an essential tool for ensuring product quality and precision in a global manufacturing context.

Tolerance Zones and Limit Measurements


Tolerance zones are a critical aspect of the International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade) system and are used to define the acceptable range of variations for specific dimensions or geometric characteristics of manufactured parts. They play a vital role in ensuring the quality and precision of products by specifying the maximum allowable deviations from the nominal dimensions. Let’s delve deeper into tolerance zones and their significance, along with practical examples and the measurement of tolerance limits.

Defining Tolerance Zones

A tolerance zone is a geometric space that represents the allowable range of variation from the nominal dimension or feature of a part. These zones are determined based on the IT Grade selected for a particular dimension. In the IT Grade system, lower IT Grade numbers are associated with smaller, more precise tolerance zones, while higher IT Grade numbers result in larger, less restrictive tolerance zones.

The tolerance zone is typically represented as a bilateral (symmetrical) space around the nominal dimension. The maximum allowable deviations are defined as positive and negative limits, which specify how much a dimension can vary from the nominal value. Tolerance zones are crucial for ensuring that manufactured parts meet specific quality standards and functional requirements.

Practical Examples of Tolerance Zones

Let’s consider a few practical examples to better understand how tolerance zones work:

Cylindrical Shaft Diameter:

  • Imagine a cylindrical shaft with a nominal diameter of 10 millimeters and an IT Grade of IT5.
  • The IT Grade IT5 corresponds to a certain tolerance zone defined in ISO standards.
  • This tolerance zone may allow for deviations of ±0.008 millimeters from the nominal diameter.
  • In this example, the shaft’s actual diameter can range from 9.992 mm (10 – 0.008) to 10.008 mm (10 + 0.008) while still meeting the specified tolerance.

Flatness of a Metal Plate:

  • Consider a metal plate with a nominal flatness of 0.1 millimeters per meter and an IT Grade of IT3.
  • The IT Grade IT3 corresponds to a tolerance zone for flatness.
  • This tolerance zone might allow for deviations of ±0.02 millimeters per meter from the nominal flatness.
  • The plate’s actual flatness can vary from -0.12 mm/m (0.1 – 0.02) to 0.14 mm/m (0.1 + 0.02) while remaining within tolerance.

Position of Holes in a Bracket:

  • Suppose you have a bracket with two holes spaced 50 millimeters apart, and it has an IT Grade of IT6.
  • The IT Grade IT6 sets a tolerance zone for the position of the holes.
  • This tolerance zone might allow for deviations of ±0.5 millimeters for the position of the holes.
  • This means that the actual distance between the holes can vary between 49.5 mm (50 – 0.5) and 50.5 mm (50 + 0.5) while being within tolerance.

These practical examples illustrate how tolerance zones are applied in real-world scenarios to ensure that manufactured parts conform to the specified tolerances. It’s important to note that the IT Grade determines the size of the tolerance zone, and selecting the appropriate IT Grade is crucial to meet the desired precision and functionality requirements.

Tolerance Limit Measurements

Tolerance limit measurements involve the evaluation and verification of a manufactured part’s dimensions or geometric features to ensure they fall within the specified tolerance limits. Here’s how tolerance limit measurements are typically conducted:

  • Measurement Tools: Specialized measurement tools and instruments are used to assess the dimensions and characteristics of the part. Common tools include calipers, micrometers, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), and optical measurement systems.
  • Reference Datum: A reference datum, often a feature or surface specified in the engineering drawing, is used as a starting point for measurements. This ensures that measurements are taken consistently.
  • Measurement Procedure: Measurements are taken according to the specific requirements and methods outlined in the engineering documentation, which includes the choice of measurement points, the direction of measurements, and any necessary environmental conditions.
  • Comparison to Tolerance Limits: The measured values are compared to the tolerance limits associated with the chosen IT Grade. If the measured values fall within the permissible range (i.e., within the tolerance zone), the part is considered to meet the specified tolerances.
  • Quality Control: Tolerance limit measurements are a fundamental aspect of quality control. If a part’s measurements exceed the tolerance limits, it may be rejected or subjected to further analysis or adjustments to bring it within tolerance.

Tolerance limit measurements are essential for ensuring that parts meet the required precision and functionality criteria. These measurements contribute to quality assurance in manufacturing and help prevent the production of non-conforming or defective parts, ultimately leading to higher product quality and reliability.

International Tolerance Grade Chart Table


The International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade) system is a standardized method for specifying tolerances in manufacturing. It uses numerical values to represent different levels of tolerance for specific dimensions and geometric characteristics. The IT Grade system is an integral part of international standards and plays a crucial role in ensuring the quality and precision of products across various industries. Below is an example of an International Tolerance Grade Chart or Table:

+----------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
|    IT Grade (ISO)   |   Tolerance in Microns  |  Tolerance in Inches   |
+----------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
|         IT01         |         ±1              |      ±0.00003937        |
|         IT0          |         ±2              |      ±0.00007874        |
|         IT1          |         ±4              |      ±0.00015748        |
|         IT2          |         ±8              |      ±0.00031496        |
|         IT3          |         ±16             |      ±0.00062992        |
|         IT4          |         ±32             |      ±0.00125984        |
|         IT5          |         ±63             |      ±0.00248031        |
|         IT6          |         ±125            |      ±0.00492126        |
|         IT7          |         ±250            |      ±0.00984252        |
|         IT8          |         ±500            |      ±0.01968504        |
|         IT9          |         ±1000           |      ±0.03937008        |
|         IT10         |         ±2000           |      ±0.07874016        |
|         IT11         |         ±4000           |      ±0.15748032        |
|         IT12         |         ±8000           |      ±0.31496063        |
|         IT13         |         ±16000          |      ±0.62992126        |
|         IT14         |         ±32000          |      ±1.25984252        |
|         IT15         |         ±63000          |      ±2.48031496        |
|         IT16         |         ±125000         |      ±4.92125984        |
|         IT17         |         ±250000         |      ±9.84251969        |
|         IT18         |         ±500000         |      ±19.68503937       |
|         IT19         |         ±1000000        |      ±39.37007874       |
+----------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+

This table provides a quick reference for the IT Grades and their associated tolerances in both microns and inches. Engineers, designers, and manufacturers use such tables to select the appropriate IT Grade based on the precision requirements of their products. Lower IT Grades, like IT01 and IT0, correspond to very tight tolerances, while higher IT Grades, such as IT19, allow for much broader tolerances. Selecting the right IT Grade is essential to meet the specific quality and functionality standards for a given product or component.

Conclusion: The Ongoing Relevance of IT Grades


In a world driven by precision, consistency, and global collaboration, the International Tolerance Grade (IT Grade) system remains a cornerstone of manufacturing and engineering. It provides a universal language for specifying acceptable variations in dimensions and geometric characteristics, ensuring that products meet the desired quality standards. As we conclude, let’s summarize the significance of IT Grades and the integral role of tolerance in the modern world.

Significance of IT Grades:

  • Universal Standardization: IT Grades offer a standardized and globally recognized system for specifying tolerances. This uniformity facilitates effective communication and collaboration across industries and borders, fostering a sense of consistency in the manufacturing world.
  • Precision and Quality: IT Grades allow engineers, designers, and manufacturers to define the level of precision required for specific dimensions and features. This precision is essential for producing high-quality and reliable products in various sectors, from aerospace to healthcare.
  • Cost Efficiency: By clearly defining tolerances, IT Grades help manufacturers avoid over-engineering or under-engineering parts. This not only leads to cost savings but also ensures that resources are used efficiently.
  • Safety and Reliability: In safety-critical industries like automotive, aerospace, and medical devices, adhering to specific IT Grades is essential to ensure the reliability and safety of products. Tight tolerances are often necessary to prevent catastrophic failures.
  • Efficiency in Manufacturing: IT Grades streamline the manufacturing process by providing clear guidance on tolerances, reducing errors, rework, and wasted resources. This efficiency is vital in today’s competitive and fast-paced manufacturing environment.

The Integral Role of Tolerance in the Modern World:

Tolerance is not merely a technical concept; it’s a fundamental element that underpins our modern world. Here’s why tolerance is integral to our increasingly complex and interconnected society:

  • Interoperability: Tolerance ensures that the parts produced in one part of the world can seamlessly integrate with components from another region, enabling global trade and cooperation.
  • Innovation: Tolerance standards drive innovation by challenging engineers and manufacturers to achieve higher precision, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in technology and design.
  • Safety and Quality of Life: In sectors like healthcare, transportation, and infrastructure, tolerance plays a direct role in ensuring the safety and well-being of individuals. Tight tolerances in medical devices save lives, while precise tolerances in the automotive industry reduce accidents.
  • Efficiency and Sustainability: The modern world demands efficiency and sustainability. Tolerances are central to reducing waste, conserving resources, and optimizing processes.
  • Consumer Expectations: Today’s consumers have high expectations for the products they use. Tolerances are key to meeting these expectations and delivering goods that are reliable, durable, and functional.

The ongoing relevance of IT Grades in manufacturing and engineering cannot be overstated. They not only enable the precise production of parts and components but also underpin the interconnected and complex world we live in. As technology advances and industries evolve, IT Grades will continue to be a fundamental tool in the pursuit of quality, innovation, and progress in the modern era.

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