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Measures To Improve Wear Resistance Of CNC Machine Tool Guide Rails

The basic idea of ​​improving wear resistance from the design point of view; strive for no wear as much as possible; when wear is unavoidable, try to strive for less wear, uniform wear and compensation after wear, so as to improve the service life.  

Strive For No Wear

The reason for wear is that the mating is in direct contact and relative movement under a certain pressure. Therefore, the condition for no wear is that the mating surfaces are not in direct contact during relative movement, and there is no relative movement when they are in contact.

One of the ways that the mating surfaces are not in direct contact during relative motion is to ensure complete liquid lubrication, so that the lubricant completely separates the friction surfaces. Such as hydrostatic guide rails, hydrostatic bearings or other hydrostatic pairs.

The dynamic pressure guide rail and the dynamic pressure bearing can also achieve a complete liquid lubrication state, but the greasy pressure is related to the relative movement speed. Therefore, wear is still inevitable during starting or stopping.  

Strive For Less Wear

No wear and tear can only be achieved in a few and special cases, and in most cases, we can only strive for less wear and tear to extend the working period.  

1) Heat Treatment of Correctly Selecting Materials of Friction Pairs

Appropriate selection of the material and heat treatment of the friction pair can improve the ability to resist wear, such as hardening of the supporting rails, soft plastic tapes on the surface of the moving rails, etc.  

2) Reduce Pressure  

The pressure can be reduced by increasing the contact surface of the guide rail and reducing the load. Improving the straightness of the guide rail surface and refining the surface roughness can increase the reputation.

Extending the length of the moving guide rail with the cold wind guide rail surface can also increase the contact area, but it must be adapted to the rigidity of the moving guide rail, otherwise the deformation will be large after being loaded, the contact will be uneven, and the local pressure will increase, although the area will increase. , but it didn’t work. The use of unloading guide rails is a good way to reduce the load on the guide rails and reduce the pressure.  

3) Change Friction Properties

Replacing the sliding pair with a rolling pair can reduce wear. Ensuring sufficient lubrication in the sliding friction pair avoids dry or semi-dry friction and also reduces wear.

4) Strengthen Protection

In order to prevent dust, cutting, grinding wheel chips, etc. from entering the friction pair, strengthening protection is an effective measure to improve the wear resistance of the guide rail.  

Strive For Even Wear

Whether the wear is uniform or not has a great influence on the working life of the components. There are two main reasons for uneven wear.

  • The pressure distribution on the friction surface is uneven.
  • Each section has different access opportunities.   There are the following measures to strive for uniform wear.  
  • Strive to make the pressure on the friction surface evenly distributed, for example, the shape and size of the guide rail should make the concentrated load as symmetrical as possible.
  • Minimize torsional and overturning moments.
  • Ensure that the supporting parts such as the workbench and the slide have sufficient rigidity.
  • The hardness of the friction pair with uneven use opportunities over the entire length should be higher. For example, the hardness of the guide rail of the lathe bed should be higher than that of the saddle guide rail.  

After wear, it should be able to compensate for the amount of wear

The gap becomes larger after wear, and the design should consider that the gap can be compensated for in structure. The compensation method can be automatic continuous compensation or periodic manual compensation. Automatic continuous compensation can rely on its own weight, such as a triangular guide. Regular manual compensation, such as rectangular and dovetail guide rails by adjusting the inserts, closed guide rails also need to adjust the pressure plate.

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