Characteristics and types of stamping die materials
The materials for stamping dies include steel, steel-bonded cemented carbide, cemented carbide, zinc-based alloys, polymer materials, aluminum bronze, high and low melting point alloys, and the like. Most of the materials for manufacturing stamping dies are mainly steel. The types of commonly used die working parts are: carbon tool steel, low alloy tool steel, high carbon high chromium or medium chromium tool steel, medium carbon alloy steel, High-speed steel, base steel and cemented carbide, steel-bonded cemented carbide, etc.
1. Low alloy tool steel
Low alloy tool steel is based on carbon tool steel with an appropriate amount of alloying elements added. Compared with carbon tool steel, the cracking tendency and quenching deformation are reduced, the hardenability of the steel is improved, and the wear resistance is also better. The low-alloy steels used to make molds include CrWMn, 9Mn2V, 7CrSiMnMoV (code CH-1), 6CrNiSiMnMoV (code GD), etc.
2. Carbon Tool Steel
The most widely used carbon tool steels in molds are T8A, T10A, etc., which have the advantages of good processing performance and low price. However, the hardenability and red hardness are poor, the heat treatment deformation is large, and the bearing capacity is low.
3. High Speed Steel
High-speed steel has the highest hardness, wear resistance and compressive strength among die steels, and has a high bearing capacity. Commonly used in molds are W18Cr4V (code 8-4-1) and W6Mo5 Cr4V2 (code 6-5-4-2, US grade M2) with less tungsten content, as well as carbon-reducing and vanadium-reducing high-speed steel developed to improve toughness. 6W6Mo5 Cr4V (code 6W6 or low carbon M2). High-speed steel also needs to be re-forged to improve its carbide distribution.
4. High carbon medium chromium tool steel
The high-carbon medium-chromium tool steels used for molds include Cr4W2MoV, Cr6WV, Cr5MoV, etc. They have low chromium content, less eutectic carbides, uniform carbide distribution, small heat treatment deformation, and good hardenability and dimensional stability. sex. Compared with high-carbon high-chromium steels with relatively severe carbide segregation, the properties are improved.
5. High carbon and high chromium tool steel
Commonly used high-carbon and high-chromium tool steels are Cr12, Cr12MoV, Cr12Mo1V1 (code D2), which have good hardenability, hardenability and wear resistance, and heat treatment deformation is very small. The capability is second only to high-speed steel. However, the carbide segregation is serious, and repeated upsetting (axial upsetting, radial drawing) must be carried out to change forging to reduce the inhomogeneity of carbides and improve the performance.
6. Carbide and Steel Bonded Carbide
The hardness and wear resistance of cemented carbide are higher than that of any other kind of die steel, but the bending strength and toughness are poor. The cemented carbide used for the mold is tungsten and cobalt. For molds with low impact and high wear resistance, cemented carbide with lower cobalt content can be selected. For molds with high impact, cemented carbide with higher cobalt content can be selected.
7. Base steel
A small amount of other elements are added to the basic composition of high-speed steel, and the carbon content is appropriately increased or decreased to improve the performance of the steel. Such steel grades are collectively referred to as base steel. They not only have the characteristics of high-speed steel, but also have certain wear resistance and hardness, and their fatigue strength and toughness are better than those of high-speed steel. The matrix steels commonly used in molds are 6Cr4W3Mo2VNb (code 65Nb), 7Cr7Mo2V2Si (code LD), 5Cr4Mo3SiMnVAL (code 012AL) and so on.
Stamping Die Working Part Material Requirements
Stamping dies are subjected to loads such as vibration, impact, friction, high pressure, stretching, bending and torsion, and also work at higher temperatures (such as cold extrusion). The working conditions are particularly complex, and it is prone to wear, fatigue, and fracture. , deformation, etc. Therefore, the requirements for the material of the working parts of the mold are higher than those of ordinary parts. Due to the different working conditions of various stamping dies, the requirements for the materials of the working parts of the die are also different.
1. Requirements for cold extrusion die materials
The working parts of the mold are required to have high strength, hardness, and high wear resistance. In order to avoid impact fracture, a certain toughness is also required. Due to the large temperature rise during extrusion, it should also have certain thermal fatigue resistance and thermal hardness.
2. Requirements for blanking die materials
High wear resistance and hardness are required for the working parts of thin plate punching dies, while for thick plate punching dies, in addition to high wear resistance and compressive yield point, in order to prevent the die from breaking or chipping, it is also necessary to Should have high fracture resistance, high flexural strength and toughness.
3. Requirements for deep drawing die materials
The material of the working parts of the mold is required to have good anti-adhesion (anti-seize), high wear resistance and hardness, certain strength and toughness, and good cutting performance, and the deformation during heat treatment should be small.
Therefore, in almost all mold failure factors, the material selection and heat treatment of the mold account for about 70%, which has become the main factor for the length of the mold life. Therefore, in the entire design and manufacturing process of the mold, the selection of mold materials and the appropriate heat treatment technology are particularly important.
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