Selecting the appropriate cutting amount (also known as cutting parameters) for a machine tool is crucial for achieving efficient and high-quality machining results. The cutting amount includes parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The selection process involves considering various factors, including the workpiece material, tooling, machine capabilities, and desired surface finish. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to determine the cutting amount for a machine tool:
Analyze Workpiece Material
Identify the material of the workpiece to be machined. Different materials have varying properties, such as hardness, thermal conductivity, and machinability, which directly impact the cutting parameters.
Refer to Cutting Tool Manufacturer’s Data
Consult the cutting tool manufacturer’s catalog or data sheets for recommended cutting parameters for the specific tool and workpiece material. The manufacturer provides valuable information on the optimal cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut for their tools.
Calculate Cutting Speed (S)
Calculate the cutting speed, which is the speed at which the cutting tool’s edge contacts the workpiece material. It is usually expressed in surface feet per minute (SFM) or meters per minute (m/min). The cutting speed depends on the workpiece material and the diameter of the cutting tool. Use the formula: S = (π x cutting tool diameter x spindle speed) / 12 (for SFM) or S = (π x cutting tool diameter x spindle speed) / 1000 (for m/min)
Determine Feed Rate (F)
The feed rate is the speed at which the cutting tool moves along the workpiece’s surface. It is typically expressed in inches per revolution (IPR) or millimeters per revolution (mm/rev). The feed rate depends on the material, tooling, and desired chip load. Use the formula: F = chip load per tooth x number of teeth x spindle speed
Select Depth of Cut (DOC)
The depth of cut is the distance the cutting tool penetrates into the workpiece during a single pass. The depth of cut depends on the material’s hardness, the machine’s rigidity, and the tool’s capabilities. For roughing, the depth of cut is usually greater than finishing operations.
Consider Machine Capability
Assess the machine tool’s capability and rigidity. Machines with higher rigidity can handle more aggressive cutting parameters, resulting in faster material removal rates.
Balancing Speed, Feed, and Depth of Cut
Strike a balance between the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut to optimize machining efficiency while maintaining tool life and surface finish. Adjust the parameters based on the specific machining operation (roughing, finishing, etc.) and the desired outcome.
Perform Test Cuts
For critical or high-tolerance machining, perform test cuts on sample workpieces to validate the selected cutting parameters and make any necessary adjustments.
Continuously monitor the machining process and inspect the workpiece to ensure the selected cutting parameters are producing the desired results. Make adjustments as needed to maintain consistent quality and efficiency.
By following these steps and considering the factors affecting cutting performance, you can effectively select the cutting amount for a machine tool and optimize the machining process. Always prioritize safety and adhere to the manufacturer’s guidelines and best practices for the specific machine and cutting tool being used.
Choose The Amount Of Knife To Eat On The Back
When roughing, in addition to leaving a finishing allowance, remove as much of the allowance as possible in one pass. When the machining allowance is too large, the cutting performance of the process system is low, the power of the machine tool is insufficient, and the strength of the tool is insufficient, etc., the tool can be divided into multiple passes.
When cutting castings and forgings with hard skin, try to make the ‰ larger than the thickness of the hard skin to protect the tool tip.
The machining allowance for finishing is generally small and can be removed at one time. On medium-power machines, the back cut for roughing can be up to 8 – iOmm: the back cut for semi-finishing. . 5~5mm; finely measure 0 2, l 5mm from the back-/JJ of OI.
Determination Of Feed Rate (Feed Amount)
Feed speed is an important parameter in the cutting amount of CNC machine tools. It is mainly selected according to the machining accuracy and surface roughness requirements of parts and the material properties of tools and workpieces. The maximum feed speed is limited by the stiffness of the machine tool and the performance of the feed system.
During rough machining, since there is no high requirement for the surface quality of the workpiece, it is mainly based on the strength and cutting performance of the machine tool feed mechanism, the strength and cutting performance of the tool holder, the tool material, the tool holder and the workpiece R- and the selected The feed rate is selected according to factors such as the set amount of back-feeding.
When finishing, the feed rate is selected according to the surface roughness requirements, tool and workpiece material and other factors.
Determination Of Cutting Speed
The cutting speed can be selected according to the selected back-cut amount, feed rate and tool life. In the actual processing process, it can also be selected according to the practical experience of production and the method of looking up the table.
When roughing or the machining performance of the workpiece material is poor, a lower cutting speed should be selected. When the cutting performance of finishing or tool material and workpiece material is good, a higher cutting speed should be selected.
cutting speed. After determination, the spindle speed n (r/min) can be determined according to the tool or workpiece diameter (D) according to the formula n: 1000v./1TD.
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